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USDA HEMP Memo - Rugwaro Ruzere

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Pazasi pane iyo yakazara USDA Hemp Memo:

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UnitedStates Dhipatimendi rekurimalture

Hofisi ye the General Counsel

Washington, D.C.

2025 0-1400

GENERALCOUNSEL

Dai 28, 2019

CHIRANGARIDZO

NYAYA:

RINOGONESA SUMMARY YEMAHARA HEMP AUTHORITIES

Musi waZvita 20, 2018, Mutungamiri Trnmp.vakafanirwa mumutemo weCommand Agriculture Improvement Act ya 2018, Pub. L. 115-334 (2018 Shamba yeChirimo). Iyo 2018 purazi Bhiri Bhodhi yakanyoreswa pamutemo hemp kugadzirwa kwezvese zvinangwa mukati mematanho akadzika mune mutemo.

Hofisi yeGeneral Counselling (OGC) yakaparura iwo maonero epamutemo akagadziriswa kuti apindure mibvunzo ine sev. eral yezvirongwa zvine hukama neyakagadziriswa zvePulazi yeBumbiro ra 2018, zvinosanganisira: chikamu-chekunze kwemaindasitiri ehempoti ekutungamira Mutemo wekurima wegore ra 2014 (2014 Farm Bill) (Chikamu 7605); kugadziridzwa kweMutemo weKugadzira Kwekurima wa 1946 kubvumidza maAmerican nemadzinza eIndia kutungamira kugadzirwa kwehemp kana kutevedza chirongwa cheDhipatimendi rekurima (USDA) kuronga kugadzirwa kweiyo hemp (Chikamu 10113); chirongwa chinotendera kuyerera kwemahara kwehemp mune yezvekutengeserana kutengeserana (Chikamu 10114); uye kubviswa kwehemp kubva kuDzinodzora Zvinhu Zvinhu (Chikamu 12619).

Mhedziso dzakakosha dzeOGC zvemutemo maonero ndotevera:

  1. Nezvekunyorwa kwegwaro rePulazi ra 2018 muna Zvita 20, 2018, hemp yakabviswa kubva kuhurongwa I hweMutemo unodzora Zvinhu uye haisisiri chinhu chakadzora.
  2. Mushure mekunge USDA yaburitsa mirau yekushandisa iyo itsva hemp gadzira zvigadzirwa zve 2018 Fa1m Bhiri iri mune yeCommandro Yezvekushambadzira Act ya 1946, States nemadzinza eIndia havagone kurambidza kutenderera kuchinjisa kana kutumira kwehemp zviri pamutemo kugadzirwa pasi pehurongwa hweHurumende kana hweMadzinza kana pasi pezenisi. rakapihwa pasi peUSAA
  3. States neIndia madzinza zvakare anogona kusarambidza kutenderera pakati kana kutumira kweiyo hemp zviri pamutemo kugadzirwa pasi pePurazi ra2014
  4. Munhu ane State kana Federal felony mhosva ine chekuita nechinhu chakadzora chinhu anotongerwa makore gumi kusabvumidzwa kutadza kugadzira hemp pasi pekurima Kwekutengesa Mutemo weChisarudzo unoshanda kumunhu akange achikura zviri pamutemo hemp pasi pechirongwa cheFarmi cha10. pamberi paZvita 20, 2018, uye ane mhosva zvakare yakaitika zuva iro risati rasvika.

MEMORANDUM Chivabvu 28, 2019

Peji2

Nekuitwa kwechirongwa che 2018 Farm Bill, hemp inogona kunge yakakura chete (ini) ine rezinesi rakakwanisika USDA rakapihwa rezinesi, (2) pasi pechirongwa cheUSA-chakabvumidzwa State kana Tribal hurongwa, kana (3) pasi pechirongwa che 2014 Farm Bill industrial hemp driver. . Icho mutyairi wekutyaira masimba anozofa gore rimwe mushure mekunge USDA yatanga hurongwa hwekupa marezenesi eUSA pasi pezvinopihwa zvePurazi reChirimo.

Izvo zvakakosha kuti veruzhinji vazive kuti Gurukota rekurima re 2018 rinochengetedza masimba eUnited States nemadzinza eIndia kuti vatema nekumisikidza mitemo inoronga Kubudisa ye hemp iyo inosimbisa kupfuura mutemo Federal. Nekudaro, nepo nyika kana dzinza reIndia risingakwanise kuvharisa kutumirwa kweiyo hemp kuburikidza neiyo Nyika kana Tribal teRRitory, inogona kuenderera mberi nekumanikidza Nyika kana Tribal mitemo inorambidza kukura kwehemp mune iyo State kana Tribal teRRitory.

Zvakakoshawo kusimbisa kuti 2018 Gurukota reHurumende harinei kana kuchinjisa chiremera cheMunyori weHutano hwevanhu neVashandi vevanhu kana Commissioner weChikafu uye Nezvinodhaka kuti atonge hemp pasi pemitemo inoshanda yeUS Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

USDA inotarisira kuburitsa mirau inoshandisa iyo itsva hemp yekugadzira zviremera muna 2019.

United States Dhipatimendi Rezvekurima

Hofisi yeGeneral Counselling

Washington, D.C.

20250-1400

STEFEN ER VADHANI

DZESHURE DZESVONDO

Dai 28, 2019

MEMORANDUM YOKUTI SONNY PERDUE SECRETARY YEMAHARA

NYAYA:

LEGAL OPINION PAMUSORO CERTAIN ZVINYANYA ZVINOGONESESA AGRICULTURE IMPROVEMENT ACT ye 2018 KUDZOKORA HEMP.

Ichi chiyeuchidzo chinopa maonero angu epamutemo pane ese1tain zviga zveCommandment Improvement Act of 2018. (“2018 Farm Bill”), Pu_b. L. 115-334, zvine chekuita nehem.

Sezvinotsanangurwa pasi apa, chirevo ichi chinogumisa iyo follQwing:

  1. Nezvekuitwa kwegwaro revaNyemhuri ya2018 muna Zvita 1, 20, hemp yabviswa2018 kubva muhurongwa I weChechi Chakavanzika chirimwa, kana chakatorwa kubva pariri, icho chisina kupfuura 1 muzana delta-2018 tetrahydrocannabinol ("THC") wa yakaoma-uremu hwaro.
  2. Mushure meDhipatimendi rekurima ("USDA" kana "Depa1tment") raparura mutemo wekushandisa chirongwa chehemp chegore raGumi reChirimo Bill chiri mugwaro G remutemo weKutengesa Kwekurima muna 2018 ("AMA; '), Nyika neIndia madzinza anogona kusadaro. kurambidza kufambisa pakati kana kutumira kwevakuru zviri pamutemo pasi pehurongwa hweHurumende kana hweMadzinza kana pasi pezenisi rakapihwa pasi peDhipatimendi.
  3. Nyika dzeIndia neIndia dzinogona kusarambidza kufambisa kana kutakurwa kweiyo hemp zviri pamutemo pasi peGurukota rezvekurima ra2014 ("2014 Farm Bill").
  4. A munhu ane State kana Federal felony kutemeswa zvine chekuita nechinhu chakadzora chiri pasi pemakore gumi ekusavhurika kusabvumidzwa mukugadzira hemp pasi pemusoro weG we AMA. Chisarudzo chinoshanda kumunhu aive achikwira zviri pamutemo hemp pasi pemutemo we 10 Frum Bill pamberi paZvita 2014, 20, uye ane chivimbo zvakare akaita occmTed pamberi pezuva iri.

Ichi chiyeuchidzo chinosimbisawo zvinhu zviviri zvakakosha zve 2018 Farm Bill zvinopa zvine chekuita nehemp. Kutanga, iro Gurukota rekurima re 2018 rinochengetedza masimba eUnited States nemadzinza eIndia kumisikidza nekumisikidza mitemo inoronga iyo Kubudisa (asi kwete iyo yekudyidzana pakati pekutakura kana kutumira) yehemp iyo yakasimba pane mutemo we Federal. Semuenzaniso, mutemo weHurumende unorambidza kukura kana kurimwa kwehemp inogona kuramba ichisimbiswa neNyika iyoyo. Chechipiri, iro Gurukota rePurazi ra 2018 harinei kana kushandura simba reMunyori weHutano hweHutano neVashandi vevanhu kana Commissioner weChikafu uye Zvinodhaka pasi pemitemo inoshanda yeU.S.

  1. MARARAMIRO

Th62018 Shamba Bhazi, Pub. L. Nha. 115-334, yakaiswa muna Zvita 20, 2018, inosanganisira zvakati wandei zvine chekuita ne hemp.1 Aya maonero emutemo anotarisa pazvikamu 7605, 10113, 10114, uye 12619, akapfupikiswa pazasi.

  • Chikamu 7605 inogadzirisa chikamu 7606 che 2014 Farm Bill (7 USC § 5940), iyo inobvumidza masangano edzidzo yepamusoro kana State depaitments yezvekurima kuti akure kana kurima maindasitiri hemp pasi pemamwe mamiriro-anoti, kana hemp yakura kana yakasimwa nekuda kwekutsvaga mune Nyika iyo inobvumidza hemp kugadzirwa. Pakati pezvimwe zvinhu, chikamu 7605 chinobatsira 2014 Farm Bill Bill § 7606 kunoda kuti Secretary of Agriculture ("Secretary") aite ongororo ye hemp research prograJ11s uye kuendesa mushumo kuCongress. Chikamu 7605 zvakare chinodzosera 2014 Frum Bill§ 7606, inoshanda gore rimwe mushure mezuva iro Munyori anogadza chirongwa pasi pechikamu 297C che 2
  • Chikamu 10113 aJ11 anogadzirisa AMA nekuwedzera nyowani subtitle G (zvikamu 297A kubudikidza 297E) (7 USC §§ 16390 -1639s) ine chekuita nekugadzira hemp. Pasi pechiremera chitsva ichi, Dunhu kana kuti Indian iyo inoda kuve neyakanyanya kutonga pamusoro pekugadzira hemp mune iyo Nyika kana nzvimbo yedzinza reIndia rinogona kuendesa, kutendera kweMunyori, chirongwa chine chekutarisa uye kutungamira kweizvozvo. hemp kugadzira .. ona AMA § 297B. Kune maUnited States kana madzinza eIndia asina-kuronga kuronga, Munyori anorayirwa kuti aise hurongwa hweDhipatimendi zvine chekutarisa uye kudzora kwekugadzira hemp munzvimbo idzodzo. ona AMA§ 297C. Iyo

1 Iyo 2014 Fann Bill inotsanangura "Indasitiri hemp" se "chirimwa Cannabis sesa L. uye chero chikamu chechirimwa chakadaro, kana chiri kukura kana kwete, chine delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol yevasungwa inopfuura kupfuura 0.3 muzana pahuremu hwakaoma." 7 USC § 5940 (a) (2). Iyo 2018 Fann Bill yakawedzera chitsva, chakasiyana zvakasiyana defmition ka ”hemp” muchikamu 297A che AMA, chakadzivirirwa se "chirimwa Cannabis sesa L. uye chero prui yeiyo chirimwa, kusanganisira mhodzi dzayo uye zvese zvinobva, zvakatorwa, cannabinoids, isomers, asidhi, munyu, uye munyu we isomers, kungave kuri kukura kana kwete. , ine delta-9 tetrahydrocrumabinol yevasungwa isingasviki 0.3 muzana pane dJy uremu. " 7 USC

  • 16390 (1). Idzo tsanangudzo mbiri dzinoda THC kusangana kweisingapfuure 0.3 muzana yechiCannabis sativa L. chirimwa kuti chionekwe kuti hemp versus mbanje. Nekuda kweruzivo rwepamutemo, ini ndinoshandisa mazwi "Hemp" uye "Indasitiri hemp" zvakafanana.

2 Chirevo Chemusangano chinoperekedza 2018 Fann Bill chinotsanangura mhedzisiro yekudzokesa seinotevera: 297C ye [AMA]. " HR REP. Nha. 115-1072, pa699 (2018). ·

Secretary anodikanwa zvakare kushambadza mitemo nemirairo yekushandisa zvinyorwa zvepamberi

  1. ona AMA § 297D. Chiremera chitsva chinopawo tsananguro (ona AMA § 297A) uye mvumo yekugoverwa (ona AMA § 297E).
  • Chikamu 10114 (7 UC § 16390 noti) chiitiko chakasununguka chinotaura kuti hapana chinyorwa mumusoro X wegumi nemana weZvirimendi zvePurazi chinorambidza kutengeserana kweiyo hemp kana hemp zvigadzirwa. Chikamu 2018 chinopawo kuti maAmerican nemadzinza eIndia havarambidzi kutakura kana kutumira zvinhu zvehemp kana hemp zvigadzirwa zvakagadzirwa zvichiteerana subtitle G kuburikidza neHurumende kana teititory yedzinza reIndia.
  • Chikamu 12619 inogadzirisa CSA kuti isabvisa hemp kubva kuCSA kududzirwa kwembanje Chikamu 1 619 zvakare inogumisa iyoCSAtoexclude THC mune hemp kubva kuhurongwa I.3 \ ::

Mukupfuudza iyo 2018 Farm Bill, Congress yakanyoreswa pamutemo hemp kugadzirwa kwezvese zvinangwa mukati mechikamu chechiverengeso asi yakachengetedzwa kuUnited States nemadzinza eIndia masimba ekutema nekumisikidza mimwe mitemo yakasimba inomirira kugadzirwa kwehemp.

  1. ANALYSIS
  1. Nezvekuitwa kweZano re2018 Fa1m reChikunguru 20120181 Hemp Yakave Yabviswa Kubva kuhurongwa I yeiyo Inodzorwa Zvezvinhu Mutemo uye Hachisisiri Chinhu Chakadzora.

CSA § 102 (6) inotsanangura. "Chinodzorwa chinhu" kureva "chinwiwa kana chimwewo chinhu, kana chekutanga, chakabatanidzwa muhurongwa I, II, IIl, .JV, kana V yechikamu B chezita iri. . . . ” 21 USC § 802 (6). Marijuana4 chinhu chinodzorwa chakanyorwa muhurongwa I weCSA. ona CSA § 202 (c) (10), rongedza I (21 USC § 812 (c), Chirongwa I (c) (l0)); 21 CFR § 1308.ll (d) (23).

Gurukota rekurima re 2018 rakagadzirisa CSA munzira mbiri.

  • Kutanga, 2018 Purazi reBrit§ 12619 (a) rakagadzirisa tsananguro yeCSA mbanje kusabvisa h mp. Asati amiswa kweiyo 2018 Fam1 Bill, CSA§ 102 (16) (21 USC 802 (16)) akatsanangura mbanje seinotevera:
  • Izwi rekuti 'marihuana' rinoreva zvikamu zvese zvechirimwa Cannabis sativa L., kungave kukura kana kwete; mhodzi dzayo; iyo tsvina inobviswa kubva pane chero pa1t yeiyo chirimwa; uye zvese zvinoumba, kugadzira, munyu, zvinobva, musanganiswa, kana kugadzirira kwechirimwa chakadaro, mhodzi kana tsime yakadaro tetm haibatanidzi mashanga akura eiyo chirimwa, fiber yakagadzirwa kubva pakubata kwakadaro, mafuta kana keke rakagadzirwa nembeu dzeichi chirimwa. , chero imwe yakagadzirwa, inogadzira, munyu, inovapo, musanganiswa, kana kugadzirwa kwe s ch akadzika matanho (kunze kweiyo svutugadziriso yakatorwa ipapo), furu, mafuta, kana keke,

3 Kuti uwedzere kumberi · pane hemp kugadzirwa kusati kwaitwa kweJanuary Fann Bi.II, ona DRM Research Service, "Hemp seCommerce Commodity" (RL32725) (yakagadziriswa Chikunguru 9, 2018), availvanogona at http:s: // crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/RL/RL32725.

4 Pfungwa iyi inoshandisa chiperengo chinowanzoitika che "mbanje" kunze kwekunge yotora mazwi kuCSA, iyo inoshandisa iyo "mbanje" chiperengo.

kana mhodzi yakasimwa yechibereko chakadaro chisingakwanise kumera.

Sezvakagadziridzwa neZvirongwa zvePurazi ra 2018, iyo CSA dudziro ye mbanje ikozvino yaverenga:

  • Pasi pe subparagraph (B); izwi rekuti 'marihuana' rinoreva zvikamu zvese zvechirimwa Cannabis sativa , kunyangwe ichikura kana kwete; mhodzi dzayo; iyo tsvina inobviswa kubva kune chero chikamu chechirimwa chakadaro; uye imwe neimwe yakakora, inogadzira, munyu, inobva, musanganiswa, kana kugadzirira kwechirimwa chakadai, mhodzi dzayo kana tsvina.
  • Izwi rekuti 'marihuana' harimo
  • hemp, sezvakatsanangurwa muchikamu 297A cheKurima kweCommandic Act of 1946; kana

8.

  • chijava chakakura seichi chirimwa, fiber yakagadzirwa kubva padzinde rakadaro; mafuta kana keke rakagadzirwa kubva

mhodzi dzezvirimwa zvakadaro, chero imwe nzvimbo, kugadzira, munyu, zvinobva, musanganiswa, kana kugadzirira yemakwenzi akura akadaro (kunze kweiyo resin exn · akaitisa ipapo), firati, mafuta, kana keke, kana mhodzi yakaomeswa yeiyo chirimwa icho chisingakwanise kumera.

  • Chipiri, 2018 Purazi reBrit§ 12619 (b) rakagadziridza CSA kuti isabvisa THC mune hemp kubva kwayakarehwa izwi rekuti "tetrahydrocannabinols" muchirongwa Sezvakagadziridzwa nebhuku rePurazi re 2018, CSA
  • 202 (c) (l 7), purogiramu ini (21 USC § 812 (c) (l 7), rondedzero ini) izvozvi yaverenga:

Tetrahydrocannabinols, kunze kweiyo tetrahydrocannabinols in hemp (sezvakatsanangurwa Under chikamu

297A yeMutemo weKugadzira Kwekurima we 1946).

Nekugadzirisa tsananguro ye mbanje kuti isabvisa hemp sezvakatsanangurwa mu AMA § 297A, Congress yabvisa hemp kubva kuhurongwa I ndokuibvisa zvachose muCSA. Mune mamwe mazwi, hemp haichisiri chinhu chinodzora. Zvakare, nekugadzirisa hurongwa ini kuti ndisabvisa THC mune hemp, Congress yakafambisawo THC mune hemp kubva kuCSA.

Izvo zvakakosha kuti uzive kuti iyi decontrolling ye hemp (uye THC mu hemp) kuzviuraya. Kunyangwe iyo CSA yekushandisa mirairo ichifanira kuvandudzwa kuratidza gore rePurazi reChimakumi mana neshanu CSA, kunyangwe kuburitswa kwemirairo iyi yakagadziridzwa kana chimwe chiitiko chakakodzera kuita izvi kubviswa.

Ini ndinotaura apa maviri makuru anopesana nemaonero kuti kuora kwe hemp kuri kuzviuraya. Chokutanga chinopokana ndechekuti, nekuti mirau haina kuburitswa pasi peCSA

  • 201, izvo zvemutemo zvinoshanduka kuronga ini nezve hemp hazvina kushanda. Kupikisa uku hakuna basa.

Iyo yakajairika maitiro ekugadzirisa iyo CSA zviyero kuburikidza nekukanganisa. Pasi peCSA

  • 201 (a), Gweta Guru ”rinogona kutonga, kuwedzera kubva, kana kutamisa pakati pehurongwa, chero zvinodhaka kana zvimwewo zvinhu pane zvekuwanikwa. 21 USC
  • 81l (a). Nekudaro, iwo mabhaisikopo zvakare anogona kugadziriswa zvakananga neCongress kuburikidza nekuchinja kune chirevo; uye Congress yaita zvakati wandei.5 ·

'Onai, Pub. L. I 12-144, § 1152 (inogadzirisa hurongwa ini yekuwedzera cannabimimetic vamiriri); Pub. L. 101-647,

  • 1902 (a) (achigadziridza hurongwa Ill kuti awedzere anabolic steroid).

Chechipiri chinopesana ndechekuti, nekuti shanduko yezvemitemo kugadzirisa ini nezve hemp haisati yaratidzirwa muna 21 CFR § 1308.11, kubviswa kwacho hakusati kwashanda. Kupikisa uku zvakare hakuna basa.

Icho chiri tekinoroji iyo inorayira mitemo yehwamanda. Ona Nat '/ Kuronga Kwemhuri & Reprod. Hutano Ass'n, Inc. v. Gonzales, 468 F.3d 826,829 (DC Cir. 2006) ("[A] mvumo inoshanda inogara ichikunda mutemo unopokana [.]"). Congress yakagadzika masangano mashanu eCSA muchiverengero, zvichizopa kuti "zvikamu zvehurongwa zvekutanga zvichange zvine zvinhu zvakanyorwa muchikamu chino." 21

USC § 812 (a) .6 Congress yakaenderera mberi ichiti "[t] hurongwa hwakagadzwa neichi chikamu ichagadziridzwa nekushambadzwazve pamakore maviri pakati pegore kutanga kwaGunyana 27, 1970, uye ichavandudzwa. uye rinobudiswazve gore rimwe nerimwe ipapo. ” 21 USC § 812 (a). Chinodiwa kugadzirisa uye kutsikisa zvakare zvinyorwa, zvisinei, hachisi chisarudzo chekushanda kwehurongwa "hwakatangwa ne [mutemo]." Id Mune zvimwe

mazwi, uko Congress chaiyo inogadzirisa mashejisiti kuti awedzere kana kubvisa chinhu chakadzora, kuwedzerwa kana kubviswa kwechinhu icho chinodzorwa kunoshanda nekukurumidza pamutemo (kusavapo rimwe rimwe zuva rinoshanda mumutemo); kuwedzera kwayo kana kubviswa kubva kurudungwe hakutsamiri pane rulemaking.7

Kuenzanisira, Congress yakagadzirisa iyo CSA muna 2012 kuti iwedzere "cannabimimetic vamiririri" kuronga ini.

Iko kugadzirisa kwakaitwa sechikamu cheSynthetic Drug Abuse Prevention Act ye2012 (Pub.

  1. 112-144, zita XI, subtitle D), iyo yakasainwa mumutemo musi waChikunguru 9, 2012. Anenge mwedzi mitanhatu gare gare, Drug Enforcing Administration ("DEA") yakaparura mutemo wekupedzisira kumisikidza iyo madhodhi emakodhi e cannabimimetic vamiririri akawedzerwa kuna kurongeka ini neCongress uye nekuita dzimwe shanduko dzinoenderana nehurongwa ini senge dzakanyorwa mu 21 CFR § 1308.11. ona 78 Fed. Reg. 664 (Jan. 4, 2013). Mukutsanangura kuti nei kuzviita-neku-kutonga kutonga zvisina basa, DEA yakataura izvozvo
    • “Kuiswa kwezvinhu izvi makumi maviri neshanu muhurongwa I rave kutanga kushanda kubva muna Chikunguru 9, " Id pa665 (kusimbisa kwakawedzerwa). Mune mamwe mazwi, tl1e kuchinja kwemitemo kuronga ini ndakashanda nekukurumidza pamusoro pekunyorwa. Iko kuratidzwa kwekuchinja ikoko muna 21 CFR § 1308.11, kunyangwe ichidikanwa ne21 USC § 812 (a), zvaive zvisina basa kuti kuitwe kwekushandurwa uku kuronga ini.

Saizvozvo, kumisikidzwa kweBazi rePurazi re2018 kwakakwanirisa kubviswa kwe hemp (uye THC mukati

hemp8 kubva kuCSA. Kugadzirisa kugadzirisa kune 21 CFR § 1308.11, apo kuchidikanwa semadheru

6 "Marihuana" uye "Tetrahydrocannabinols" zvose zvakaverengerwa muhurongwa hwekutanga hwandakatanga neCongress muna1970.

7 United States v. Huerta, 547 F.2d 545, 547 (10 Chikumi 1977) ("[F] kushaya kwekushambadza 'yakagadziridzwa' marongero sezvinodikanwa neChikamu 812 (a) hazvina zvazvinoita pahutongi hwezvinhu izvo zvakatanga kunyorwa mumurawo mashanu."); United States v. Monroe, 408 F. Batsira. 270,274 (ND Cal. 1976) (“Saka, nepo chikamu 812 (a) chakanyatso kuraira zvinodzora zvinhu zvinorongwa kuti zvinyorwe zvakare, it zviri pachena kuti Congress haina kuronga republication kushandira se kudzokororazve zvadzakarongwa, izvo kana zvikasaitwa zvisirizvo zvaizokonzeresa kuti hurongwa hwacho hupere uye hwopera ……………………………………………………………………… .. [T] iye

chinodikanwa kuti mashedhiyo, kana 'achinge agadziridzwa,' kuve 'akanyorwa zvakare' kwaingova kwechinangwa chekutanga rondedzero imwe yaizoratidza zvese zvinhu izvo zvaive zvinoenderana nezvinodiwa neMutemo ……………………………………… …………………………………………… .. .. ”).

8 Chirongwa I, chakabudiswa muna 21 CFR § 1308.11, inosanganisira tsanangudzo ye "tetrahydrocannabinols" mundima (d) (3I) isingaoneki muCSA. Pasinei hapo nekuvapo kweiyo defmional mune cw · rent mirairo, ini

yeDDEA kuenderera kusungirwa kushambadza yakagadziridzwa masystem, hazvidikanwe kuita 2018 Shanduro yeChirimo yeBumbiro kuti ironge I.9 ·

B. Mushure mekunge Dhipatimendi Rekurima Raburitsa Mitemo Yekushandisa Hemp Production Zvekushandisa zveGumi reChirimo Gurukota Ririmo mu Subtitle G yeCommerce Kurima Mutemo we 2018, Nyika neIndi Tribe Mhedzisiro Inogona Kudzivirira iyo Kupindira Kwekutakura kana Kutakura kweHemp Lawfnlly Kugadzirwa Pasi PeNyika kana Dzinza. Ronga kana Pasi peChitupa Chakapihwa Pasi Pechirongwa cheBazi.

AMA § 297D (a) (l) (A) inoraira Iye Munyori kuti abudise zviga nemirairo "nekukurumidza sezvinobvira" kuseta chikamu chidiki cheG che AMA. 7 USC § 1639r (a) (l) (A) .. Iyi mirayiridzo ichagadzirisa kubvumidzwa kweHurumende uye hurongwa hweMadzinza pasi pe AMA § 297B uye kupihwa kwemvumo pasi pechirongwa cheDhipatimendi pasi pe AMA § 297C. Sezvatsanangurwa pasi apa, kana mirairo iyi painoburitswa, Nyika neIndia dzinza dzinogona kusarambidza kutakura kana kutumira hemp (kusanganisira zvigadzirwa zvehemp) zvakagadzirwa zvichienderana nechirongwa chakabvumidzwa cheHurumende kana cheMadzinza kana chakagadzirwa pasi pezinesi rakapihwa pasi pechirongwa cheDhipatimendi.

Kufambisa kwe hemp kunogadziriswa muna 2018 Farm Bil§ 10114.10 Chikamu (a) chinopa:

  • RULE OF -Zvisinei mumusoro uyu kana gadziridzo yakaitwa nedhiza iyi inorambidza iyo yepakati kutengeserana kwehemp (sekutsanangurwa kuchikamu 297A cheKurima kweKushambadzira Kwemutemo we 1946 (sekuwedzerwa nechikamu 10113) kana zvigadzirwa zve hemp.

7 USC § 16390 noti. Ichi chinopihwa chinoti hapana chinhu mumusoro X weiyo 2018 Fann Bill

Ndiri wepfungwa yekuti THC iri hemp haibatanidzwe kubva kuTHC sechirongwa ini ndakaona chinhu pasi peCSA nekuda kweiyo purogiramu ye 2018 Farm Bill.

9 Chirongwa I, chinoratidzwa mu 21 CFR § 1308.11, inosanganisira yakarongeka rondedzero ye "marihuana inobvisa" mundima.

(d) (58). Marijuana inobviswa haina kuratidzwa muhurongwa I mune mutemo nekuti yakawedzerwa mushure! 970 nemurau pasi peCSA § 201. Izwi rekuti "marihuana dura" rinotsanangurwa mumutemo se "dhizaini ine imwe kana inopfuura cannabinoids iyo yakatorwa kubva kune chero zvidyarwa zve genann Cannabis, kunze kweiyo yakaparurwa resin (ingave "Tsvina kana tsvina yakatorwa kubva kumuti." Bhiri rePurazi ra 2018 rakagadzirisa tsananguro ye "marihuana" kusabvisa hemp, asi nekuda kwekuti inodzvinyirira yeiyo "marihuana inobvisa" muhurongwa ini handishandise izwi rekuti "marihuana" kana "teb · ahydrocannabinols" kutsanangura tenn, mubvunzo unomuka kuti hemp kubvisa ichiri here? inotaridzwa kuve yakanyorwa sehurongwa ini ndakadzora chinhu. Panguva iyo nyaya yacho isati yagadziriswa mukufunga uku, Ini ndinofunga kuti iyo yakagadziriswazve patsanangudzo yakatemerwa ye "marihuana" yakanyatso bvisa d hemp kubvisa kubva muhurongwa I, uye izvo zvinoratidzira zvakadaro mu 21 CFR § 1308.1I (d) (58) kwaingova kuchinjanisa kuri kuita. ·

10 Kufambisa kweHemp kunogadziriswawo mune zviitiko zvekugovaniswa gore, izvo zvinodzora mari yakagadziriswa Federal kubva pakushandiswa kurambidza transpmtation yehemp. Nekudaro, izvo zviga zvinogumira muhukuru nekuti kero chete hemp yakagadzirwa pasi peiyo 2014 Fann Bill mvumo, uye ivo vanogadzirisa chete Federal zviitwa zvehurumende. Kureva, nepo zviga zvichirambidza Federal vatambi kubva kuvhara kutakurwa kweanodaidzwa kuti “2014 Farm Bill hemp, ”ivo havarambidze Nyika kuita in zvine hanya nazvo. ona Kwekurima, Kumaruwa kuvandudza, Chikafu uye Zvinodhaka Kutonga, uye Hwakabatana Agency Kugoverwa Mutemo, 2019, Pub. L. 116-6, div. B, § 728 (kurambidza mari inoitwa kuti iwanikwe neMutemo uyo kana chero chero mutemo kuti ishandiswe mukupesana ne2014 Farm Bill§ 7606 kana "ku forbit ari transportation1 kugadzira, sero, or use of indasitiril hemp, or mbeus of mutoh Simiti, kuti is wakakura or inorimwa zvinoenderana ne [2014 Farm Bill§ 7606], mukati kana kunze kweHurumende mune iyo hemp maindasitiri kukura kana kurimwa ”). onawo Kutengeserana, Ruramisiro, Sainzi, uye Zvine Hwakabatana Maitiro Okugovera Mutemo, 2019, Pub.

  1. 116-6, div. C, § 536 ("Hapana kana imwe yemari yakagadzirwa nemutemo uyu inogona kushandiswa mukupesana ne [2014 Farm Bill§ 7606] neDhipatimendi rekururamisira kana Drug Enforcing Administration.").

inodzivisa iyo yekudyidzana inosangana yehemp. Nekudaro, chirongwa ichi, chakamira chega, hachina mhedzisiro yekusakura kwekufambisa kwehemp muUnited States kana nzvimbo dzeMadzinza umo kufambisa kwakadai kunorambidzwa pasi pemutemo weNyika kana weDare.

Chikamu (b), zvisinei, zvinorambidza chaizvo Nyika neIndia madzinza kudzivirira kutakurwa kwehemp kuburikidza iyo Nyika kana Tribal ten'itory. Chikamu (b) chinopa

  • KUKOSHESA HEMPI Uye HEMP -Hakuna Nyika kana Indian Tribe inofanira kurambidza iyo transp011ation kana kutumira kweiyo hemp kana hemp prodLttures inogadzirwa in zvichienderana negwaro G re Kwekurima Kwekushambadzira Act of 1946 (sekuwedzerwa nechikamu 10113) kuburikidza neHurumende kana gumi-itiki yeIndia Tribe, sekushanda.

7 USC § 16390 noti. Naizvozvo, izvi zvinopa mutemo wenyika kusvika pamutemo weHurumende

inorambidza transpate transp011ation kana kutumira kwehemp iyo yakagadzirwa zvichienderana nechero pasi G ye AMA.

Kana iri nyaya yebumbiro remutemo, "[t] iye Supremacy Clause inopa mutemo wakajeka wekuti federal mutemo" unofanirwa kuve Mutemo wepamusoro weNyika; uye Vatongi mudunhu rega rega vachasungirwa ipapo, chero chinhu chiri muBumbiro reMitemo kana Mirairo chero ipi zvayo [S] inotevedzera zvinopesana…. ' Pasi pechirevo ichi, Congress ine simba rekudzora mutemo we [S]. Arizona v. United States, 567

US 387, 398-99 (2012) (achidudza US Const. Art. VI, cl. 2). "Pasi pe dzidziso yekuregererwa kwemubatanidzwa, mutemo wemubatanidzwa unodzora kana kupamhidzira mutemo [we] unopesana. United States v. Zadeh, 820 FJd 746, 751 (5th Chikumi 2016).

Matare edzimhosva anowanzo bvuma mhando nhatu dzekuregererwa: (1) kuratidza kuregererwa (uko Congress "kubvisa [s]" masimba kubva kuHurumende kuburikidza ne "kuratidza kusunungurwa gadziriro"); 11 (2) kusunungurwa kwemunda (uko Nyika "dzakarambidzwa kubva kudzora. maitiro mumunda uyo Congress, inoshanda mukati mechiremera chakakodzera, chakatemera chinofanirwa kutungamirwa nehutongi hwayo hwega ");12 uye kuregererwa kwemhirizhonga (uko mitemo yeHurumende inosunungurwa painopesana nemutemo we Federal, izvo zvinosanganisira mamiriro ezvinhu "uko 'kutevedzera zvese zvehurumende uye [S] zvirevo zvemutemo hazvibviri'" kana mamiriro ezvinhu "anopokana [S] anoteedzera mutemo ' inomira sechinhu chinotadzisa kuzadzika nekuitwa kwezvakazara zvinangwa nezvinangwa zveCongress ”').13 Arizona, 567 US pa 399-400 (macations akasiyiwa); onawo Zadeh, 820 F.3d pa 751.

11 Ona, semuenzaniso, 7 USC § 1639i (b) (“(b) Kuregererwa kweMubatanidzwa.-Hapana Nyika kana kudzvanywa kwezvematongerwo enyika kweNyika zvakananga kana zvisina kunanga pasi pechiremera chero chipi zvacho kana kuenderera mberi muchiita chero chikafu kana mhodzi iri pakati nepakati yekutengeserana chero chinodiwa chine chekuita nekunyora kwekuti chikafu (chinosanganisira chikafu chinopihwa muresitorendi kana chakafanana) kana mhodzi yakagadzirwa genetic (izvo zvinosanganisira mamwe mazwi akafanana neakatsanangurwa ne Secretary of Agriculture) kana yakagadzirwa kana kugadzirwa ichishandisirwa genetic engineering, kusanganisira chero chirevo chekuti chikafu kana mbeu iripo kana chimwe chinhu chinogadzirwa kana kugadzirwa uchishandisa genetic engineering. ”).

12 Ona, semuenzaniso, Pac. Gasi & Elec. Co v. Nyika Energy Res. Kuchengetedza & Dh. Comm 'n, 461 US 190,212 ("[T) hurumende yemubatanidzwa yakatora nzvimbo yese yekunetseka nezvekuchengetedzwa kwenyukireya, kunze kwemasimba mashoma akabvumikisa [S] matates.").

  • n Ona, semuenzaniso, 21 USC 903 ("Hapana chinopihwa chechikamu ichi chidiki chinotarisirwa kuve chinoratidza chinangwa cheCongress chekugara mumunda mune icho chinoshandiswa, kusanganisira zvirango zvemhosva, kusiyiwa kwemutemo weHurumende panhau imwechete iyoyo yaizoda. zvisina kudaro ive mukati mechiremera cheHurumende, kunze kwekunge paine

Chikamu 10114 (b) che 2018 Fann Bill inogutsa tsananguro yekuregererana nekuti mutemo weHurumende unorambidza kufambisa kana kutumira hemp kana hemp zvigadzirwa zvakagadzirwa zvichiteerana negwinyiso G ye AMA ingapesana zvakananga ne chikamu 10114 (b), icho chinopa kuti hapana Nyika ingarambidze zviitiko zvakadaro.14 Naizvozvo, chero mutemo wakadai weNyika wakatemerwa Congress. Mhedzisiro imwechete iyi inoshanda kumadzinza eIndia.15

Muhuwandu, kana mirau yekushandisa ikaburitswa, maAmerican nemadzinza eIndia haangakwanise kudzivirira kutumirwa kwehemp zviri pamutemo pasi pehurongwa hwakabvumidzwa hweHurumende kana hweMadzinza kana pasi pezenisi rakapihwa pasi pechirongwa cheDhipatimendi.

C. Stlites uye Indian Tribe Inogona Kudzivirira iyo Kupindirana Kwekutakura kana Kutakura kweHemp Kunogadzirwa Nomutemo Pasi peGurukota rezvekurima ra2014.

Nekuti iyo 2018 Fmm bhiri haikurumidzi kudzinga iyo hemp mutyairi wezvemutemo muna 2014 Fema Bhiri uye ndudzi dzeIndia dzinorambidzwa kuvharidzira kupindira kwekufambisa kana kutumira kweiyo hemp (kusanganisira zvigadzirwa zve hemp) zvakagadzirwa zviri pamutemo pasi pebumbiro reF7606 raFM. Mhinduro yacho inoenderana nezvinoreva mutsara uyu "zvichiteerana nechero subtitle G yeiyo Kurima KwekutengesaActof2018 ″ mu2019FmmBill § 2014 (b) (1946U.SC § 2018onote). Chete chete hemp inogadzirwa maererano nechero subtitle G yakafukidzwa neiyo yekuregererwa gadziriro iri pamusoro. Sezvatsanangurwa pasi apa, ndiwo maonero angu kuti mhinduro kumubvunzo uyu hongu, nekushanda kwe AMA § 10114B (f).

AMA§ 297B (f) inotaura mhedzisiro yepamutemo yezviripo zvinopa masimba maAmerican nemadzinza eIndia kuvandudza zvirongwa zvekushandisa primmy zviremera zvakatemerwa pamusoro pekugadzirwa kwehemp mukati meiyo Nyika kana nzvimbo yedzinza reIndia. Kunyanya, chikamu 297B (f) inopa:

.

(!) iyo iyo Hurumende kana hurongwa hweMadzinza husina kubvumidzwa pasi pechikamu ichi, kana kugadzirwa kwehemp kunoenderana nechikamu 297C kana mimwe Mitemo yeFederal (inosanganisira mirairo); uye

(2) kana kugadzirwa kwehemp haina kutorambidzwa neHurumende kana dzinza reIndia.

kupokana kwakanaka pakati pezvekupiwa kwechikamu ichi nemutemo weHurumende kuitira kuti vaviri vasaramba vakamira pamwechete. ").

14 Zvakare, chikamu 10114 (b) chingatariswe seyokuregedzera ratidziro nekuti mutemo unobvisa zvachose simba reNyika kurambidza kutakura kana kutumira zvigadzirwa zvehemp kana hemp kuburikidza neHurumende.

15 AMA§ 297B (a) (3) ine chirongwa chinodzivirira kusunungurwa chinoti hapana chinhu mu§ 297B (a) "inodzinga kana kudzika mutemo chero wedzinza reNyika kana reIndia" uyo Anotungamira kugadzirwa kwehemp "uye" inosimba kupfuura [zvinyorwa] G] .11 TU.SC § J639p (a) (3). Nekudaro, izvo zvekurwisa-kuregererwa gadziriso zvinogumira kune Kubudisa of hemp - kwete iyo kutakura kana kutumirwa kwehekmp- uye nekudaro haiwirane nePurazi rezvirimwa reI§I I2018 (b).

7 USC § 1639p (f) (inowedzeredzwa).

Ichi chikamu chinogadzirisa kugadzirwa kwehemp muNyika kana Tribal districtoty iyo iyo Yenyika kana dzinza risina ari hurongwa hwakabvumirwa pasi pe AMA. § 297B. Ichi chikamu chinobvuma kuti, mune chiitiko chakadai, kugadzirwa kwehemp mune iyo State kana Tribal teITitory ichiri yakagadziriswa kana ikagadzirwa kana maererano nechirongwa cheDhipatimendi pasi pe AMA § 297C or maererano nemimwe Mitemo yeFederal, uye iyo Nyika kana dzinza hazvirambidze neimwe nzira kugadzirwa kwayo.

Mutauro wakajeka we subtitle G we AMA, sekuwedzerwa ne 2018 Farm Bill, nokudaro inofunga zvakajeka mamiriro ezvinhu ayo hemp haina kugadzirwa pasi pechirongwa chakabvumidzwa 297B chirongwa kana re pasi rezinesi rakapihwa pasi pechirongwa cheDhipatimendi re297C, asi richiripo. zviri pamutemo zvakagadzirwa pasi

"Mimwe Mitemo yeMubatanidzwa." Iko kufunga kwangu kuti "mimwe mitemo yeFederal" inosanganisira 2014 Farm Bill

  • 7606.16

Kuziva kwangu, isati yagadziriswa ye2014 Farm Bill§ 7606, iyo CSA ndiyo chete iyo Federal mutemo iyo yaibvumidza kugadzirwa kwehemp. Chokwadi, kugadzirwa kwehemp- se "kugadzirwa" kwehurongwa ini hwandakadzora chinhu - kwaiwanzo kurambidzwa pasi peCSA kunze kwekunge iwo mvumo yakanyorwa pasi pechinyoreso kana kukwirisa pasi peCSA. ona 21 USC

  • § 802 (15), 802 (22), 822, uye 823; 21 CFR paJt 1301. Kupiwa (1) kubviswa kwehemp sechinhu chinodzorwa pasi peCSA, (2) kunonoka kurambidzwa kwechi 2014 Fann Bill§ 7606 chiremera, uye (3) kuitiswa kwechiremera chitsva chekugadzira hemp mukunyorwa. G ye AMA, iwo maonero angu kuti "mimwe Federal mitemo" inoreva izvo zvinopihwa zve2014 Farm Bill
  • 7606, izvo zvichiri kushanda. Dudziro yakadaro inopa pakarepo mutsara wekuti "mimwe Mitemo yeMubatanidzwa." "Iyi nheyo yakakura yedudziro iyo couJts inofanira kupa .effect, kana zvichikwanisika, kune clause rega rega uye neshoko remutemo." Ona, semuenzaniso, Loughrin v. United States, 573 US 351, 358 (2014) (Nhaurwa dzemukati uye zvinyorwa zvakasiiwa). ·

Naizvozvo, kuverenga AMA§ 297B (f) zvinoenderana ne 2018 Faim Bill§ 10114 (b), kana hemp yakagadzirwa zviri pamutemo zvichienderana ne 2014 purazi reBill§ 7606 ("mamwe mutemo weFederal"), saka, na viJtue ye AMA § 297B (f), kugadzirwa kwayo hakuna kurambidzwa. Hemp yakadaro ingadai yakagadzirwa "zvinoenderana negwaro G," iyo inonyatsotaura neiyo scenaifo, se AMA

  • 297B (f) chikamu chemusoro wenyaya G. Nekudaro, pasi pe 2018 purazi Bill§ 10114 (b), Nyika kana India

16 Iyo Congress yakafungidzira mamiriro akadaro akaratidzika kunge yakapihwa mutauro muna 2018 Fann Bill§ 7605 (b} kunonoka kudzingwa kwe2014 Farm Bill§ 7606 kusvika mwedzi gumi nemaviri. pashure Munyori anogadza iyo 297C chirongwa. Nekudaro, huwandu uhu hahuremerwe ne AMA§ 1C (c) (l), iyo inopa: "[i] n nyaya yedzinza reNyika kana reIndia iro hurongwa hweHurumende kana hweMadzinza husina kubvumidzwa pasi pechikamu 297B, kusiri pamutemo kuburitsa hemp muNyika iyoyo kana zvirevo gumi zveedzinza reIndia zvisina rezinesi rakapihwa Munyori pasi pechikamu (b). " Tichipa nongedzo ku "kana mimwe mitemo yeFederal" mu AMA § 297B (f) (l) - uye chokwadi chekuti 297 purazi Bill§ 2014 ichiri kushanda

-Ingangove kusaverenga kusanzwisisika kwe AMA 297C (c) (J) kugumisa kuti hemp yakagadzirwa maererano nemutemo weFederal (2014 Fann Bill § 7606) iri, panguva imwe chete, zvisiri pamutemo pasina rezenisi rakaparurwa rakapihwa neMunyori. pasi pechirongwa che297C. Sezvo ma com1s abvira kare kuziva, zviri pamutemo zviremera izvo "zvinoburitsa zvisina musoro mhedzisiro zvive dzivirirwe kana kududzira kwakashata kunoenderana nechinangwa chemitemo kunowanikwa. " Griffin v. Oc_eanic Makondirakiti, Inc., 458 US 564,575 (1982).

Dzinza haingarambidze kutakurwa kana kutumirwa kweanonzi “01 Farm Bill hemp” kuburikidza neNyika iyoyo kana Dunhu.17

Zvakaitika Zvichangoburwa

Ini ndinobvuma kuti mhedzisiro iyi iri mukupokana nesarudzo ichangobva kuitika mune imwe nyaya muDunhu reIdaho, asi zvakare inoenderana nesarudzo ichangobva kuitika mune imwe nyaya muSouthern District yeWest Virginia. Hapana kana dare rakananga kune "mimwe Mitemo yeFederal" mutauro mu AMA § 297B (f) (l), yandinowana isinganzwisisike.

In Big Sky Sayenzi LLC v. Jdaho State Police, Case No. 19-CV-00040 (D. Idaho), mutongi wematare akaona kuti kutumirwa kweOregoI1 hemp kunosimuka kuColorado uye kupomedzerwa neIdaho State Police kungadai kusiri kugadzirwa "zvichienderana negwara G" nekuti Nyika kubva kwazvino haisati yane hurongwa hwakabvumirwa rn1der AMA § 297B uye Munyori haasati atanga chirongwa pasi pe AMA § 297C.18 Magi akabvuma mutemo weOregon unobvumidza kurimwa kwehemp, achidaro ivo vanofunga kuti hemp yakagadzirwa nemuridzi ane rezinesi neDhipatimendi rekurima reOregon (uye, nekudaro, zvichiteerana nemutemo waFin 2014 Fann Bill§ 7606).19 Nekudaro, pakuramba kwevanofunga kuti vachatungamirwa kwekutanga, magistrati- akagumisa kuti, mukutamba gwaro rePurazi reChirimo, Congress yakafunga "kuumba mutemo wekutenderera nekugadzira nekufambisa kwehemp ye prnposes yemutemo wehurumende, uye chimiro ichocho. inofanirwa kunge iine mugadziriro yemubatanidzwa (kana inoenderana [S] tate kana [T] ribal) yekugadzira hemp inowanikwa mu 2018 Fmm Bill. ”20 Kunyangwe mutemo wePurazi ra 2018 unobvumidza kuti hemp iendeswe kune mamwe maNyika maganhu, maganisita akaisa mukati medzidzo dzekutengeserana dzinoshanda chete kune hemp inogadzirwa pasi pemutemo wakaziviswa pasi pesimba rePurazi reNyika raZvirimendi.1 Naizvozvo, nekuda kwekuti iwo mirairo haasati avapo, iyo inopindirwa hemp inoiswa pasi peIdaho mutemo unorambidza transpo1iation.

USDA haisi pmty mu Denga Guru Mhosva, uye hofisi iyi haibvumirane nezvikonzero zvemantji maererano nekutumirwa kwehemp zvakabvumidzwa zviri pamutemo pasi pechirongwa chePurazi cha2014. In

17 Iyi mhedziso inoratidzika kunge inotsigirwa munhoroondo yemutemo zvakare. Mukutsanangura mhedzisiro yechibvumirano chekuregererwa, Mushumo weConstitution unoti: “Kunyange [maS] madzinza nemadzinza eIndia anogona kudzikisira kugadzirwa nekutengesa kwehemp uye zvigadzirwa zvehemp mukati memiganhu yavo, maManeja, muSec. 10112 [sic], vakabvumirana kusabvumidza [maS] matai uye madzinza eIndia kudzikisira kutakura kana kutumira hemp kana hemp zvigadzirwa kuburikidza ne [S] tate kana Indian nzvimbo01y. " HR REP. Nha. 115-1072, pa 738 (2018). Nekudaro, maManager aireva hemp kazhinji, kwete chete hemp yakagadzirwa pasi pechirongwa chakagadziridzwa pasi pegwaro G re AMA.

18 Ona Big Sky, ECF Doc. # 32, Memorandum Sarudzo uye Order Re: Plaintiffs Motion Yekutanga Mukusangana; onawo ECF Doc. # 6, Memorandum Chisarudzo uye Order Re: Plaintiffs Emergency Motion yeChinguvana Kudzora Order uye Chekutanga lltjement uye Plaintiffs Motion kune Faira Kupfuura Bhiriuko. (inowanikwa pa 2019 WL 438336 (Kukadzi 2, 2019)).

19 Denga Huru, ECF Doc. # 32, at 5, 7-8.

20 Id pa 3.

21 Id pa 19-26.

achiverenga mutauro wepamutemo, maiguru vakanyatsoongorora musimboti wekunyorwa kwekuvaka mutemo kuti mitemo haifanire kududzirwa inotungamira musimboti wekududzira, gavhuna haana kugadzirisa zvainge zvoita “mimwe Mitemo yeMutemo” mune AMA § 1B (f) kana kuyedza kupa mutauro uyu chero zvirevo. Dare reIdaho rakatadza kuverenga mutemo wacho zvizere uye harina kufunga nezve “mimwe Mitemo yemubatanidzwa” yandinowana isingabvumirwe. Tichifunga nezve chimiro chekutanga chemutongi wemutongi, ini ndinowana iwo mafungiro ake achiramba chekutanga chisungo chisina kujeka.22

Zvichipo, kududzirwa kwa 2018 purazi Bhiri § 10114 yepamusoro neiri zano repamutemo kunoenderana nesarudzo yakapihwa muSouthern District yeWest Virginia. In United States v. Mallory, Nyaya Nhamba 18-CV-1289 (SDW Va.), Iyo Oepmtment yeJustice yakamhan'arira nyaya yehurumende kuti ibate hemp inonzi yakakura mukutyora CSA uye zvakare kunze kwekuyerwa kweFann Bill ya2014. Panyaya iyoyo, hemp yakanyatsokura yakagadzirwa nemugadziri ane rezinesi neNyika yeWest Virginia pasi pechirongwa chekutyaira cheFM Bill§ 2014, apo iyo hemp mbeu yakaendeswa kubva kune yekuKentucky muridzi ane rezinesi neCommonwealth yeKentucky pasi pegore ra7606 purazi.

  • 7606 chirongwa chemityairi. Dare rakavimba nemusanganiswa wemutemo - iro raPurazi reChirimo ra2014, madanidziro anoita zviwanikwa, makumi maviri nemana, uye neChina purazi reChimurenga - kupedzisa mhosva yekumiririra mupomeri24 uye kurasa mhosva yehurumende zvachose.2018 Mukuparadza chirevo chekutanga. , dare rakasunga vanopomerwa kuti vatakure chigadzirwa cheHimp kumutsetse wePennsylvania kuenda kuPennsylvania kuitira mashandiro nekutengesa.25

kunyange zvazvo Mallory Dare harina mukana wekugadzirisa chero State kuedza kuvhara kutakurwa kweiyo hemp, dare rakataura 2018 Fmm Bill § 10114, ichitaura kuti "inobvumidza pachena hemp, mhodzi dzayo, uye hemp, yakagadzirwa zvigadzirwa kuti iendeswe kumiganhu yeNyika. "28 Mari yemutongi wedunhu yakagadzirirwa hemp yakagadzirwa pasi pegore 2014 Fann Bill§ 7606 uye kwete hemp yakagadzirwa pasi peNyika, Tribal, kana Depmtmental hurongwa. Mhedziso yakasvikwa na Mall01y vedare inowirirana neye1pretation yangu iyo States haigoni kuvhara kutumira kwehemp, inga

22 Id na21- 22 (citing Padash. 258 F.3d ll61, 1170-71 (9th Cir. 2004)). Magi akaenderera achiti:

Iyo nheyo yemakadhi yekumisimba yevakavakirwa iyo chirevo chinofanira, pane zvese, kuti zvive zvakadaro zvakaratidza kuti, kana it inogona kudzivirirwa, hapana chirevo, mutsara, kana izwi richava risinganzwisisike, risina, kana zvisina basa. … Ibasa redu kupa simba, kana zvichikwanisika, kuzvirevo zvese neshoko rea zvirevo.

Id pa23 (zvemukati zvemukati uye zvinyorwa zvinosiyiwa).

23 Chokwadi, nyaya yemantji iri kukwikwidza. Munoona Big Sky Sci. LLC v. Nyaya Nha. 19-35138 (9th Cir.).

24 Munoona supra mashoko omuzasi 10.

25 Mal / olJ ', ECF Doc. # 60, Memorandum Pfungwa uye Order, 2019 WL 252530 (SDW Va. Jan. 17, 2019).

26 Mal /angu, BCF Doc. # 72, Memorandum Pfungwa uye Order, 2019 WL 1061677 (SDW Va. Mar. 6, 2019).

27 Mal / o, y, BCF Doc. # 60, 2019 WL 252530, pa * 3.

28 Mallory, BCF Doc. # 72, 2019 WL 1061677, at * 6:

Page 12

iyo hemp inogadzirwa pasi pegore reFail Faim kana pasi peHurumende, Tribal, kana Dhipatimendi hurongwa w2014der iyo 1 Farm Bill. Ichowo mutongo wekupedzisira weSouthern District yeWest Virginia cowt, uye kwete yekutanga mutongo sezvakaitwa nemafungiro emutongi wedunhu raDunhu.29

Panyaya dzedudziro yepamutemo, rugwaro rwemutemo runotonga. Mumwe anofanira kuverenga rugwaro rwacho muzere uye kupa eve1y izwi rinoreva. Kutaurwa kwe "mimwe mitemo yeFederal" kunofanirwa kupihwa chirevo, uye mutauro uyo unoreva zvakajeka kumutemo weFederal unobvumidza kugadzirwa kweiyo hemp - 2014 Fann Bill § 7606. Naizvozvo, hemp inogadzirwa pasi peiyo mutyairi wekutyaira iri hemp yakagadzirwa zvichienderana subtitle G ye AMA. States neIndia madzinza anogona kusarambidza transpo1tation kana kutumira kweiyo hemp kuburikidza neiyo Nyika kana Tribal tenitory. ·

D. Iyo yePurazi reNzvimbo dzeNzvimbo dzePulazi Zvinodzora pane Kugadzirwa kweHemp nevamwe Felons.

Gurukota rePurazi ra2018 rakawedzera chirongwa chitsva chinogadzirisa kugona kwevakabatwa nemhosva kuburitsa hemp. Bumbiro raFail ra2014 rakanyarara panhau. AMA§ 297B (e) (3) (B) (pano, "Felony gadziriro"), sezvakawedzerwa neBhuku rePurazi re 2018, inopa:

(B) FELONY.-

  • MUCHINJORA-Kunze sekunge zvapihwa mubumbiro remutemo (ii), chero munhu akabatwa nemhosva yerudzi rwechivanhu a chinodzorwa chinhu pasi peNyika kana Federal mutemo · zvisati zvaitika, pa, kana mushure zuva rekunyorwa kweizvi subtitle ichave isinga tsanangurike, munguva yeI0-gore inotevera zuva rekutongwa-

(!) toparter muchirongwa chakagadzwa pasi pechikamu ichi kana chikamu 297C; uye

(II) kuburitsa hemp pasi pese pane zvirevo kana nhungamiro dzakapihwa pasi pechikamu 297D (a).

  • -Clause (i) haishande kune chero munhu ari kukura hemp zviri pamutemo nerezinesi, kunyoresa, · kana kubvumidzwa pasi pechirongwa chekutyaira chakabvumidzwa nechikamu che7606 chekurima Act of2014 (7 USC 5940) zvisati zvaitika zuva rekunyorwa kweichi chidimbu.

7 USC § l 639p (e) (3) (B) (kusimbiswa kwakawedzerwa). Zvinongedzerwa ku "zuva rekunyorwa kwechinyorwa ichi" ndezvekunyora G we AMA, sekuwedzerwa nechikamu 10113 che2018 Fann Bill. Nekudaro, "zuva rekunyorwa kwegwaro iri" izuva rekuiswa kwegwaro rePulazi reNyika raDecember 2018, 20.

Mukutsanangura iyo Felony gadziriso, Mushumo weConstitution unonyora:

Chero munhu anenge atongerwa mhosva yekusanganisa chinhu chinodzorwa haakwanisi kutora chikamu pasi pe [S] tate kana [T] ronga ronga yenguva yeJO-gore zvichitevera zuva rekutongwa. Nekudaro, izvi zvinorambidzwa hazvingashande kune vanogadzira avo vari pamutemo kuita [S] tate hemp chirongwa chekutyaira sezvakapihwa mvumo neCommandical Act of 2014, zvisati zvaitika. Inotevera inotevera yekufungidzira mushure mezuva rekushandiswa kweichi chidimbu chinokonzeresa makore 0

29 Mallory, BCF Doc. # 72, 2019 WL l 06 I677, pa * 9 (kuramba the United States 'danho rekugadzirisa uye kubvumidza vanopomerwa kuti vasiye). Denga Huru, BCF Doc. # 32, pa makumi maviri neshanu (kuramba tsamba yematare kuitira preliminaiy gungano uye uchiona kuti comt ichatora parutivi ratidziro yekumisikidza musangano wekutonga kuti itonge nyaya iri kuenda kumberi).

Page 13

nguva yekusatarisirwa zvisinei nekuti mugadziri wacho atora chikamu muchirongwa chekutyaira chakabvumidzwa muna 2014.

HR REP. Aihwa . 115-1072, pa 737 (2018).

Muhuwandu, munhu akabatwa aine mhosva neHurumende kana yeFederal felony ine chekuita nechinhu chakadzora - zvisinei kana iyo mhosva yaitika - isinga tsigire kuburitsa hemp pasi pegwaro G re AMA yenguva yemakore i0 zvichitevera zuva rekutongwa. Zvinosarudzika zviripo mune clause (ii) yeFelony gadziriro inoshanda kumunhu aive pamutemo kugadzira hemp pasi pemutemo wePurazi ra2014 pamberi paZvita 20, 2018, uye uyo akange atongerwa mhosva yekubviswa pane chimwe chinhu chakadzorwa isati yasvika. States neIndia madzinza zvino ane res] Kuziva kubata pasi kuti munhu ari kuda kuburitsa hemp mune izvo zvakadyiwa here kana Tribal nzvimbo ine chero Federal kana State felony yemhosva ine chekuita neiyo yakadzora zvinhu izvo zvinoita kuti munhu iyeye asakwanise kuburitsa hemp.

  • ZVIMWE ZVESE

Pane zvimwe zviviri zvakawedzera zvakakosha zveiyi nyaya zvinofanirwa kusimbiswa.

Chekutanga, iro Gurukota rekurima re 2018 rinochengetedza masimba eUnited States nemadzinza eIndia kumisikidza nekuisa mutemo · mitemo inogadzira kugadzirwa kwehemp iyo inosimbisa kupfuura mutemo weFederal. ona AMA

  • 297B (a) (3) (7 USC § 1639p (a) (3)) (”Hapana chinhu mudunhu rino chinodzidzisa kana kudzora mutemo chero wedzinza reNyika kana reIndia uyo… (i) anotungamira kugadzirwa kwehemp; uye (ii) ) ane mutserendende pane ichi chinyorwa. "). Semuenzaniso, Nyika inogona kuramba ichirambidza kukura kana kurimwa kwehemp muNyika iyoyo.30 Sezvakakurukurwa pamusoro apa, zvisinei, nepo Nyika kana Indian dzinza dzichirambidza kugadzirwa kwehemp, inogona kusarambidza kutumira kweiyo hemp iyo yakagadzirwa maererano nemutemo we Federal.

NeChipiri, gore reFail Faim harinei kana kugadzirisa masimba eMunyori weHutano hweHutano neVashandi ("HHS Secretary" ·) kana Commissioner weChikafu uye Nezvinodhaka ("FDA · · Commissioner") pasi peFederal Chikafu, Zvinodhaka, uye Cosmetic Act (2018 USC § 21 et seq.) Uye chikamu 301 chePublic Health Service Act (351 USC § 42). ona AMA§ 297D (c) (7 USC

  • 1639r (c)). Nepo AMA§ 297D (b) inopa kuti Munyori weCommand Agriculture anozove “nemasimba ega” kuburitsa Federal zvirevo nemirairo inoenderana nekugadzirwa kwehemp; ichi chiremera chiri pasi pechiremera cheHHS Secretary uye FDA Commissioner kusimudzira Federal mirau uye nhungamiro pasi pemitemo iyo yeFDA. 7 USC § 1639r (b).

3 ° Dzimwe nyika dzinoramba dzichirambidza kurima hemp. ona Musangano weNyika weMatare ehurumende, "State Indu kesi Hemp Statement," inowanika pa http:// www.11bXNUMXcs l. kanag /researchc h/ agriculture-uye-rural-kuvandudza / nyika-· indus trial-hemp-stattes.aspx # stvakadya (yakagadziriswa Feb. Ini, 2019).

  1. Chiverengwa

Ini ndakaongorora iyo hemp inopa iyo yakagadziriswa sept ye 2018 Fann Bill uye kusvika kune zvinotevera mhedziso:

  1. Nezvekuitwa kweiyo 2018 Fatm Bill musi waZvita 20, 2018, hemp yabviswa muhurongwa I yeCSA uye haisisiri yekutonga
  2. Mushure mekunge USDA yaburitsa mirau yekushandisa iyo hemp kugadzirwa kweiyo 2018 Fatm Bill iri mumusoro G we AMA, States uye maIndia emadzinza haangakwanise kurambidza tl1e kupindirana transp01tation kana kutumira kwehemp zviri pamutemo kusimudzira ineta Nyika kana Tribal 'hurongwa kana pasi pezenisi rakapihwa. Nass the Departmental i;
  3. Nyika dzeIndia nemadzinza eIndia dzinogona kusarambidza kupaza kana kutumira hemp zviri pamutemo kugadzirwa
  4. Munhu ane State kana Federal felony kutemerwa zvine chekuita nechinhu chinodzorwa anozvitenderedza-makore gumi mukukanganisa kusabvumidzwa mukugadzira hemp pasi pemusoro weG we AMA. Chinhu chakasarudzika chinoshanda kumunhu aive achikura zviri pamutemo hemp pasi pechirongwa cheFarmi cha10 pamberi paZvita 2014, 20, uye ane chivimbo chakaitikawo pamberi pezuva iri.

Gurukota rekurima re 2018 rinochengetedza masimba eUnited States nemadzinza eIndia kumisikidza nekuisa mutemo mutemo unogadzira kugadzirwa kwehemp iyo inonyanya kuringana mutemo weFederal. Pamusoro pezvo, ilie 2018 purazi reBumbiro harinei kana kuchinjisa chiremera cheHHS Secretary kana FDA Commissioner kuti vatonge hemp pasi pemutemo unoshanda weFDA.

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